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Libro ‘Línea de Fuego’

27 Nov

Línea de Fuego de Pérez-Reverte, nos lleva durante unos diez días al verano de 1938 en el pueblo ficticio de Castelles del Segre: estamos en la batalla del Ebro. A través de personajes de ambos lados de la trinchera nos sumergimos en ella, en la cual disparamos, vemos morir compañeros y enemigos, olemos a sangre, a muerte y a sudor, pasamos sed, nos agobiamos, sentimos miedo, incertidumbre e incluso admiración observando los lados más desgarradores y conciliadores del ser humano bajo la circunstancia de la guerra: clara protagonista de la novela.

Esta novela bélica, larga y quizá algo compleja a nivel logístico literaria, si es que existe el término, tiene acción, variopintos personajes y muchos pequeños lugares y recodos. El mapa dibujado por Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau del lugar donde se desarrolla todo, es de agradecer por parte del lector. Trabajada en todos los sentidos; desde los personajes, las escenas, la temporalización y sobre todo los diálogos. Los personajes están dibujados de forma representativa, siendo ésta una novela coral. La facilidad y credibilidad con que se dan los diálogos en los libros de Arturo es mi parte favorita de esta y de todas sus novelas. Lo que dicen y lo que no dicen: los silencios de gran penetración y reflexión.

Durante el desarrollo aparecen, como elementos naturales de la misma, el cansancio de la batalla, la reflexión de lo que acontece, el compañerismo, el odio y a veces el reconocimiento del rival. La cruenta violencia, en ocasiones desencarnada recurre a la literalidad de un autor que deja entrever que él ha conocido esas escenas en primera persona. La muerte aparece también tratada con la cotidianidad de la batalla asumiendo la jerga que eso genera. Arturo nos acerca a la barbarie y brutalidad de la guerra en primera línea de la contienda. Podría incluso decirse que se está leyendo en determinados momentos una crónica de guerra en vez de una novela.

Los dos bandos son presentados a modo de narrador observador incluyendo por supuesto diálogos y acciones que nos permiten apreciar cómo se va disipando o cuestionando la ideología especialmente del bando republicano, en el frente. Permite así entender porque lucha en última instancia cada uno de ellos. Es decir la propia batalla de cada persona, que se da de manera relativamente simétrica en uno y otro lado: por sobrevivir, por vengar a sus compañeros, por obligación, por regresar a su casa, por miedo a la represión, por no encontrar otra escapatoria. El drama y el horror de cada uno que a veces cesa en alguna tregua donde intercambian tabaco o agua con el enemigo.

Brigadistas internacionales, requetés, anarquistas, ejército popular, moros, falangistas, comunistas, milicianos, mujeres encargadas de las comunicaciones, reporteros: voluntarios o a la fuerza en ese lugar, cobardes algunos y valientes otros. Desde niños, como el pequeño Tonet, una mujer que da a luz, la llamada quinta del biberon hasta los cargos más veteranos. Todos ellos y muchos más, respaldados por una documentación adecuada que caracteriza las novelas de Pérez-Reverte y que compone así este relato ecuánime y verosímil.

Acercándonos al final, y después de mucho olor a sangre y sudor, podemos entrever también un punto Chavesnogaliano, si se permite el término. Donde en un diálogo surge la reflexión, sin terminar la guerra aún, estamos en el 38, de que solo un dictador de un bando u otro controlara esto, sea quien sea, rojo o azul y que lo sumirá todo en un baño de sangre, incluso después de vencer. La novela termina abierta, pues estos diez días de batalla no tienen una trascendencia tan importante como para decantar la guerra, pero si se deja entrever la dificultad en ocasiones del bando republicano para organizarse y gestionar la contienda y la perfecta máquina de guerra, eficaz, metódica y concienzuda que practicó el bando sublevado.

Es, bajo mi punto de vista, una novela necesaria y mucho en estos momentos y en este lugar llamado España. Que nos enseña el desastre y el desgarro que supone una guerra entre hermanos y que dejó secuelas y dolores que quizá volvamos a padecer si olvidamos cómo llegamos hasta ese oscuro lugar. No diré que es mi favorita de Reverte aunque sí se ha dicho que es de lo mejor que ha escrito. Novela corta en el tiempo, no en páginas, que cuenta de manera efectiva diez días cerca del Ebro. Formato totalmente diferente, por ejemplo, a las Aventuras de Alatriste o Falcó. 

Aprovechando que el Ebro pasa por Castelles del Segre, dejo un recopilatorio de fotos de la Guerra Civil.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War.

Girl snipers, fighting for the government, during the Spanish Civil War.

Refugees from the Spanish Civil War cross into France at Le Perthus.

A Spanish government soldier throws a hand grenade towards enemy trenches during the Spanish Civil War.

Women were among the Republican combatants during the Spanish Civil War.

After a successful attack, Nationalist troops capture communist troops entrenched on the crest of a hill on the Somosierra front, during the Spanish Civil War.

Republican forces lying in ambush in a village near Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by )

Nationalist troops escorting a group of captured Republican troops on the Samosierra front during the Spanish Civil War.

Spanish people search through the rubble in Madrid where their homes once were, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by )

Bodies of children awaiting burial after a Nationalist air raid on their school at Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War.

Spanish refugees on the road during the Spanish Civil War, followed by a donkey.

Republican and irregular loyal troops in Barcelona awaiting orders to advance to the Saragossa front during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Fox Photos )

Scenes of destruction along the roads leading from Franco’s Spain during the height of the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Three Lions )

circa 1936: The Fifth Division of Replacements arrive and give the word that the troops of Navarre have come to fight in the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Three Lions )

10th February 1939: General Solchager receives Franco’s Spanish Nationalist troops at Col De Portus, a deep valley in the eastern Pyrenees, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Topical Press Agency )

10th November 1936: General Franco’s Falangist troops watch a man being carried past on a stretcher after their successful capture of the city of Getafe. Although only seven miles from Madrid, they would not take the capital until March 1939, marking the end of the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Horace Abrahams/Keystone )

circa 1938: A member of the French frontier troops helps a family of refugees cross the border from Spain during the Spanish Civil War.

9th September 1936: A wounded Republican soldier being treated at a field dressing station on the Guadarrama front near Madrid. (Photo by Ward/Fox Photos )

8th September 1936: Republican militia men searching through the wreckage of their barracks in Madrid after it was bombed by rebel planes. (Photo by Fox Photos )

13th November 1936: Some of the crowd watching a parade of youth organised by the nationalists after they captured the city of Irun, Spain, give the fascist salute, others just watch. (Photo by Maeers/Fox Photos )

14th November 1936: Children wearing nationalist uniform and carrying guns march through a street in San Sebastian, Spain. (Photo by Maeers/Fox Photos )

1937: Spanish Nationalist troops supporting General Franco during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Brown/Fox Photos )

circa 1936: Three T-26 light tanks made in the Soviet Union travel through a field during a battle in Spain, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by )

8th April 1938: A crowd of refugees in France during the Spanish Civil War.

July 1936: Male and female militia fighters on the march at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

1936: Spanish troops at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

July 1936: Burned out cars on a street after Franco’s Nationalist uprising was defeated in Barcelona at the outset of the Spanish Civil War. The city eventually fell to the Nationalists in 1939.

January 1939: Spanish Nationalists in Barcelona rejoice at the arrival of General Franco’s forces in the city during the Spanish Civil War. Barcelona was the last major Republican stronghold to fall to the Nationalists.

circa 1936: New arrivals, still labelled with their name tags on their coats, at a camp for refugees of the Spanish Civil War.

circa 1938: Part of Santander, which was totally destroyed by fire during fighting in the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Three Lions )

29th January 1939: Spanish insurgent nationalist soldiers, loyal to General Franco in the Spanish Civil War, eating their first meal for days at Bourg Madame in the French Pyrenees. Captured by republican soldiers in Barcelona and sent to north Spain for trial, they jumped off the train near the French border and surrendered to the French. (Photo by Fox Photos )

circa 1936: Rebel troops shelter behind a wall near a mountain road on the Sierra de Guadarrama front, while they engage government troops during the advance on Madrid, Spain.

circa 1937: Novelist and journalist Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961), at the Belchite sector, during the Spanish Civil War. He was one of the first American correspondents to arrive on the scene. (Photo by London Express )

circa 1936: A Red Cross team outside their hospital tent in Spain. (Photo by Fox Photos )

1936: A man trying to clear away the wreckage of a building at Madrid after bombing by rebel forces. (Photo by )

24th January 1939: Women and children who fled when the Spanish Nationalist troops started bombarding Tortosa, returning to their home to find it in ruins, during the Spanish civil war.

1938: Ex-prisoners of war from the International Brigade, foreign volunteers who fought with the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War, arriving back in Britain. (Photo by London Express )

28th August 1936: Crowds of government militia fighters cheering as they prepare to leave the barracks at Pedralbes near Barcelona, for the Saragossa front. (Photo by Fox Photos )

8th February 1939: Refugees arriving at Le Perthus during the Spanish Civil War.

1st February 1939: Two members of a rescue party assist an elderly woman fleeing the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Topical Press Agency )

13th November 1936: A youth parade of Spanish schoolchildren makes its way along the road wearing the black shirts of the Fascists and carrying dummy rifles. Their home of Irun has been taken over by Rebel troops during the Spanish Civil War, and they have been converted to the Fascist cause. (Photo by Maeers/Fox Photos )

MADRID, SPAIN – JANUARY 1: Picture taken during the Spanish Civil War in the late 30s of Republicans fighting in a street of an unidentified town against nationalist rebels. (Photo credit should read STF/AFP via )

FRANCE – 1938: War of Spain, 1936-1939. Refugee children in France. 1938-1939. (Photo by Roger Viollet via /Roger Viollet via )

SPAIN – CIRCA 1936: Civil war in Spain, 1936. (Photo by Roger Viollet via )

FRANCE – CIRCA 1939: War of Spain (1936-1939). Spanish soldiers taking refuge in France. February 1939. (Photo by Gaston Paris/Roger Viollet via )

SPAIN – CIRCA 1936: Civil war of Spain, 1936-1939. Burned cars in front of the seat of military governor of Catalonia in Barcelona. 1936. (Photo by Roger Viollet via )

The French Mobile Guard hand out soup and bread to refugees from the Spanish Civil War as they arrive at Le Perthus on the French border, 29th January 1939. (Photo by FPG/ )

Italian volunteers on the side of the Royalists during the Spanish Civil War, circa 1937. (Photo by FPG/ )

Fascist troops relax and listen to music towards the end of the Battle of Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War, 20th November 1936. (Photo by FPG/ )

Spanish Nationalist troops marching on Bilbao stop for provisions in the village of Deva, east of the city, during the Spanish Civil War, 3rd October 1936. (Photo by FPG/ )

Artillery men of Franco’s army in north-western Spain during the Spanish Civil War, 30th September 1937. A crucifix has been fixed to their gun sheild. (Photo by Keystone/ )

Refugees at the railway station in Bilbao during the Spanish Civil War, June 1937. The refugees have returned to the city after its capture by Franco’s Nationalist forces. (Photo by Keystone/ )

A Republican farmer defending a farm on the outskirts of Irun against Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War, 6th September 1936. A comrade lies dead by his side. (Photo by Keystone/ )

A truckload of Loyalist soldiers are transported to a prisoner-of-war camp during the Spanish Civil War, circa 1937. (Photo by Three Lions/ )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 23rd July 1936, Civil militiamen fire upon rebels in the Madrid Montana barracks, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War, (1936-1939), Traumatised child refugees from the Basque region of Spain, As many as 4000 Basque child refugees were cared for near Southampton, England , where they had been evacuated to, escaping the heavy fighting in Northern Spain, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War & Conflict, Spain, 18th September 1936, Government troops and soldiers attack rebels holding the Alcazar Fortress during the Spanish Civil War (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), A Nationalist soldier listening to a homeless woman’s story in the ruins of Barcelona, the woman having lost her husband in the fighting, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 13th August 1937, 17 year old Anita Royo from Morocco the only woman fighting with the rebel forces on the Madrid front, is pictured here with Moorish troops, where she is acting as a nurse, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 1st April 1939, Jubilation in the village of Templique near Madrid after the capital had surrendered to Nationalist forces, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 19th March 1938, Smoke rises over Barcelona after air raids by General Franco’s Nationalist forces, which left over 1300 dead, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 16th January 1939, A Nationalist air force plane flown by the Italians is loaded with machine gun ammunitionto be used in the offensive in Catalonia, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 1937, A scene in Oviedo showing an armoured car captured from the government forces by the patriots on exhibition in the public square, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 1937, Some of the many dead who died after nationalist planes had dropped their bombs on the Basque town of Durango, The town suffered many casualties with some 300 dead and 2500 wounded, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 1939, Republican troops in an internment camp in France after their defeat, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 30th April 1937, A scene of devastation in Guernica after an aerial bombardment by German and Italian planes which caused great loss of life, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Haynes Archive/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 1937, Rescuers helping to remove a body from a ruined church hit by nationalist bombs,With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Haynes Archive/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 1937, The ruined church at Durango after nationalist planes had dropped their bombs while a priest was saying mass, The Basque town suffered many casualties with some 300 dead and 2500 wounded, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Haynes Archive/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War, (1936-1939) pic: 26th January 1939, Devout women residents of Tarragonapraying on their knees,The Catalan city had been captured by the forces of General Franco , With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 23rd July 1936, An armed woman leading a group marching through Madrid at the outbreak of the war, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 29th January 1939, General Juan Yague (1891-1952) and his troops kneel in prayer in the streets of Barcelona after it had fallen to the Nationalist/Fascist forces, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), Italian air legionaries bomb enemy trenches in Spain, Italy helped support General Franco on the fascist side in the conflict,, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War, (1936-1939) pic: 21st November 1936, General Miaja the commander of the Madrid Government forces at the front, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: August 1937, Buildings in Santander wrecked after the rebel forces gained control, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 11th September 1936, A woman member of the Spanish government forces with two militiamen holding high ground on the Aragon front as they oppose the rebels, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 31st July 1936, Alcazar, Toledo, Government troops firing on the rebels from the shelter of a hastily erected barricade, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 30th July 1936, Men and women volunteers of the Popular Front leaving for the Guadarrama front to fight the rebels, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), pic: 4th November 1936, Militiamen firing at rebels from a balcony in the battle for a village south of Madrid, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spain, Demonstrations, pic: 7th October 1934, Mounted guards and police on duty in the Place de Catalogne in Barcelona during the disturbances, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco in 1936, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

War and Conflict, Spanish Civil War (1936-1939),pic: 27th August 1937, A band plays General Franco’s troops into Barcelona after the city had fallen to the Fascist forces, With what started as a military uprising in Morocco, headed by General Franco, the fighting spread rapidly to start the Spanish Civil War, Outside support was provided by the International Brigade who helped the Republican cause and by Germany and Italy both allied to the Nationalists, Once Government resistance was exhausted, many of their people fled to France and the Nationalists entered Madrid on 28th March 1939 with General Franco then being able to call an end to the war (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

Female Communists show their support for the Spanish Loyalists against the forces of Fascist Germany during the Spanish Civil War, by marching in front of the German Consulate in New York City, circa 1938. (Photo by FPG/ )

UNITED KINGDOM – CIRCA 1936: Three from 25 English prisoners of war, who hat fought on the side of the Spanish government against the Nationalists led by General Franco in the Spanish Civil War. They were taken hostages at the battles of Madrid: Richard Payne, George Stuhldeer, Alfred Crownley (left to right). Madrid. Spain. Photograph. Around 1936 (Photo by Imagno )

SPAIN – CIRCA 1936: The Guadarrama trenches of the Nationalists in the battles of Madrid. The soldiers with their guns are in positon whilst a wounded is carried away. Spain. Photograph. 1936 (Photo by Imagno )

SPAIN – CIRCA 1936: In the great battle for San Sebastian, rebel soldiers take positon on the ridge of the Somosierra Mountainds, overlooking San Sebastian. Madrid. Spain. Photograph. 1936 (Photo by Imagno )

SPAIN – SEPTEMBER 09: Republican soldiers in the Spanish Civil War. Republican soldiers in the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by Daily Herald Archive/SSPL )

Four scenes of civilians from the film ‘To Die in Madrid’ a.k.a. ‘Mourir a Madrid’, 1965.

Soldier with rifle in a scene from the film ‘To Die in Madrid’ a.k.a. ‘Mourir a Madrid’, 1965.

Dead Bodies in a scene from the film ‘To Die in Madrid’ a.k.a. ‘Mourir a Madrid’, 1965.

Soviet truck in a scene from the film ‘To Die in Madrid’ a.k.a. ‘Mourir a Madrid’, 1965.

Marching soldiers in a scene from the film ‘To Die in Madrid’ a.k.a. ‘Mourir a Madrid’, 1965.

Moorish troops, who are fighting with the anti-Communist forces, pictured as they rest after a victorius encounter in the Spanish Civil War, in a suburb of Madrid, Spain, 9 November 1936. (Photo by Keystone/ )

British volunteers of the International Brigades saluting as they mass in Barcelona before leaving to join Republican forces, during the Spanish Civil War, 9th December 1936. (Photo by Rolls Press/Popperfoto via )

SPAIN – CIRCA 1938: German tank sent to assist Spanish military forces during the civil war. – Date of Photo: 1938-1939

Republican troops of the International Brigades with a Renault FT tank during the Spanish Civil War, Spain, February 1937. (Photo by Keystone)

Republican troops of the International Brigades moving into a communications trench at Navalcarnero, near Madrid, at the beginning of the Nationalist attack on the capital during the Spanish Civil War, Spain, 1st November 1936. (Photo by Keystone/ )

Nationalist troops search a farmer and his wife for weapons after their capture of the Basque town of Irun during the Spanish Civil War, Spain, 6th September 1936. (Photo by Keystone/ )

Walter Skellkorn: Injured machine gun operator of a German bomber of the LEGION CONDOR in a prisoner-of-war camp of the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. August 1937. Photograph. (Photo by Imagno ) Walter Skellkorn: verletzter Maschinengewehr-Operateur eines deutschen Bombers der LEGION CONDOR in einem Kriegsgefangenenlager der Republikaner während des Spanischen Bürgerkriegs. August 1937. Photographie.

Faced with a food shortage due to the Spanish Civil War, people line up for food at a distribution centre where rations are issued at 7 a.m. every day, Madrid, 12th September 1936. (Photo by Alan Webb/Fox Photos/ )

Bodies laid out after being machine-gunned, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Spanish Civil War, c1936-c1939. Barcelona was the scene of street fighting between different Republican factions between 3 and 8 May 1937. The Nationalist leader General Franco ordered the aerial bombing of the city in March 1938, with Italian aircraft dropping 44 tons of bombs. Barcelona fell to the Nationalists on 26 January 1939. (Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector )

Rubble in the main street, Palma, Majorca, Spain, Spanish Civil War, c1936. At the start of the war Majorca was a Nationalist stronghold. Republican forces made an amphibious landing on the island on 16 August 1936 but were forced to leave just under a month later, largely due to the Nationalists’ superior air power, most of which was provided by Fascist Italy. (Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector )

The mortuary, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Spanish Civil War, c1936-c1939. Barcelona was the scene of street fighting between different Republican factions between 3 and 8 May 1937. The Nationalist leader General Franco ordered the aerial bombing of the city in March 1938, with Italian aircraft dropping 44 tons of bombs. Barcelona fell to the Nationalists on 26 January 1939. (Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector )

Homeless children, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Spanish Civil War, c1936-c1939. (Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector )

Spanish Civil War, 19th July 1936, Republican casualties after the capture of the mountain headquarters near Madrid by nationalist forces. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish civil war, soldiers from the International Brigade, (Republican).. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish civil war, soldiers from the International Brigade, (Republican).. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

These two female republican fighters taking a moment to celebrate during the Spanish civil war, Barcelona 1937. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

(Original Caption) Spanish Civil War: (1936-1939) tank of Franco Rebels in small town near Bilbao.

(Original Caption) Spanish Civil War: (1936-1939) Street scene in Torrigos after encounter of rebels and government troops. Photograph.

(Original Caption) Spanish Civil War: Rebel troops resting after engagement in small town.

Spanish Civil War. The arrival of the Republican soldiers in France at Le Perthus (Pyr��n��es-Orientales, France). In 1939. (Photo by adoc-photos/Corbis via )

Spanish Civil War. Republican soldiers (Spain). In 1936. (Photo by adoc-photos/Corbis via )

(Eingeschränkte Rechte für bestimmte redaktionelle Kunden in Deutschland. Limited rights for specific editorial clients in Germany.) SPAIN, civil war 1936-39: GUERNICA, 1937. /Residents of Guernica amidst the damage wrought by German aerial bombing (Legion Condor) during the Spanish Civil War, April 1937. (Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via )

(Eingeschränkte Rechte für bestimmte redaktionelle Kunden in Deutschland. Limited rights for specific editorial clients in Germany.) Spain Catalonia Barcelona: Unrest prior to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War: military post with machine gun and Guardia Civil (fighting against the Lerroux government in Madrid) – 1934 – Vintage property of ullstein bild (Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via )

(Eingeschränkte Rechte für bestimmte redaktionelle Kunden in Deutschland. Limited rights for specific editorial clients in Germany.) SPAIN: BARCELONA, 1936. /nRepublican (Loyalist) forces set up barricades in Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War, 19-20 July 1936. (Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via )

(Eingeschränkte Rechte für bestimmte redaktionelle Kunden in Deutschland. Limited rights for specific editorial clients in Germany.) Spain Madrid : Events prior to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War: communist rally after the Popular Front won the elections on February 16 – 1936 – Vintage property of ullstein bild (Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via )

Republican tanks on the streets of a Spanish city during the Civil War, 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican soldiers in Spain during a Spanish Civil war battle, 1937. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish Civil War, 1938 bodies of several children killed during a nationalist air raid on Barcelona. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish Civil War: A crew belonging to the Condor Legion stand near a Heinkel aircraft, 1938. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish Civil War: the Spanish town of Guernica, after the bombing by German and Italian aircraft, 1937. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish civil war republican children salute, 1937. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican militia fighters at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish woman is injured and helped by Assault guards in Madrid during riots in the 1936 Election. Assault Guards enforced security on election day, many freed from their regular posts by the carabineros. Six people were killed during the elections, and perhaps another 30 injured. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Hans Beimler (2 July 1895 – 1 December 1936) German Communist deputy in the Reichstag. A fervent anti-Nazi, he had been detained in Dachau concentration camp in April 1933. He went to Spain as commissar of the first contingent of the International Brigades volunteers who supported the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War and helped to defend Madrid from the Nationalists in November 1936, during the Battle of Madrid. He was killed during the battle. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

The Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 Pipistrello (bat) was the first three-engine bomber/transport aircraft serving in the Italian Regia Aeronautica It proved effective during the war with Ethiopia and the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Rafael Alberti Merello (16 December 1902 – 28 October 1999) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of ’27. During the Spanish Civil War, Alberti became the poetic voice of the extreme left and he made frequent broadcasts from Madrid. After the defeat of the Republicans, he and María fled to Paris. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish civil Guards take cover from snipers during a violent episode in Barcelona 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican supporters prepare to defend positions in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Italian air force bombardment of Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Civil volunteers take up positions in central Barcelona in the summer of 1936 to defend the republic during the Spanish civil war. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican CNT volunteersman an improvised vehicle during the first months of the Spanish civil war 1937. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Armoured vehicle from the Echevarria brigade loyal to the republic guards the route into a loyalist village Near San Sebastian during the first months of the Spanish civil war 1937. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Armoured vehicle from the Echevarria brigade loyal to the republic guards the route into a loyalist village Near San Sebastian during the first months of the Spanish civil war 1937. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

The Siege of Oviedo was a siege in the Spanish Civil War that lasted from July 19 until October 16, 1936. The town garrison, under the command of Colonel Antonio Aranda Mata, declared for the uprising and held out until relieved by a Nationalist force. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Young republican soldiers being interviewed before battle by a journalist during the Spanish civil war 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Armed peasants in the Republican army march to Valladolid, during the Spanish Civil War 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

During the Spanish Civil War, civilians take shelter by sleeping on the platforms of the underground metro system. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Spanish civil war, Italian aircraft bomb Republican positions in Spain. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Damage caused in the town of Oviedo, Spain during the Siege of Oviedo, in the Spanish Civil War. It lasted from July 19 until October 16, 1936. The town garrison, under the command of Colonel Antonio Aranda Mata, declared for the uprising and held out until relieved by a Nationalist force. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Recruitment poster in Barcelona attracts onlookers during the Spanish civil war. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Garibaldi battalion of the 9th mixed brigade, part of the Italian International Brigade fighting during the Spanish Civil War, 1936. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Military parade in Barcelona, after nationalist forces enter the city, 1939 during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Three boys and a girl with weapons in the spring of 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Nationalist soldiers at a captured outpost during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican position at the Battle of Brunete (6 July – 25 July 1937), Fought 15 miles west of Madrid, was a Republican attempt to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Nationalists on the capital and on the north during the Spanish Civil War. Although initially successful, the Republicans were forced to retreat from Brunete and suffered devastating casualties from the battle. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican position at the Battle of Brunete (6 July – 25 July 1937), Fought 15 miles west of Madrid, was a Republican attempt to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Nationalists on the capital and on the north during the Spanish Civil War. Although initially successful, the Republicans were forced to retreat from Brunete and suffered devastating casualties from the battle.. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican artillery unit during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Workers at a barricade in Barcelona, 1936, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Casualties and injured lie on the streets during the Siege of Gijón, one of the first actions in the Spanish Civil War The siege saw the anarchist militia crushing a small Nationalist garrison in Gijón, between July 19 and August 16, 1936. The militia – nominally fighting in defense of the Republic – laid siege to the Simancas barracks in the city of Gijón. These were defended by about 180 soldiers and Guardia Civil officers who had risen in support of General Franco’s rebellion and seized the post for the Nationalists. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Action at Teruel, during the Spanish Civil War. The combatants fought the battle between December 1937 and February 1938, during the worst Spanish winter in twenty years.The battle was one of the bloodier actions of the war with the city changing hands several times, first falling to the Republicans and eventually being re-taken by the Nationalists. In the course of the fighting, Teruel was subjected to heavy artillery and aerial bombardment. The two sides suffered over 140,000 casualties between them in the two-month battle. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Entry of nationalist forces to the city of Teruel, during the Spanish Civil War. The combatants fought the battle between December 1937 and February 1938, during the worst Spanish winter in twenty years. The battle was one of the bloodier actions of the war with the city changing hands several times, first falling to the Republicans and eventually being re-taken by the Nationalists. In the course of the fighting, Teruel was subjected to heavy artillery and aerial bombardment. The two sides suffered over 140,000 casualties between them in the two-month battle. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican soldiers enter the deserted ruined town of Lleida (Lerida) a key defense point for Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War. The town fell to the nationalist Insurgents in 1938. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

A suspected nationalist spy, is executed in the Catalan area by a Republican firing squad, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Military parade in Barcelona, after nationalist forces enter the city, 1939 during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican armoured vehicle captured during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

F.VIIsM-CPPA aircraft of the republican force during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Soviet tanks used by the republican army in Spain, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican soldiers playing music during a break in hostilities during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

International brigade soldiers with a Soviet Russian machine gun, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican soldiers cross the Erbo River during the Battle of the Ebro, the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War. It took place between July and November 1938, with fighting mainly concentrated in two areas on the lower course of the Ebro River. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

German aircraft used by the Nationalist air Force during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Bombs dropped on Barcelona by nationalist aircraft, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican militia captured by Falangist forces during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

The November 2, 1937 Condor Legion attack on Lleida (Lerida) in Spain, during the Spanish Civil War. The November 2, 1937 Legion Condor attacks against Lleida became especially infamous since they were aimed to the school known as Liceu Escolar de Lleida. 48 children and several teachers died in it that day, 300 people were killed on the November 2 bombings altogether, and the town would be bombed and sieged again in 1938, when it was conquered by Franco’s forces. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Militia fighters resist the advancing nationalist army in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Nationalist soldiers fight behind a barricade during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Arrest of a republican militia soldier during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

The July military uprising in Seville, Spain on 18 July 1936, which contributed to the start of the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Francisco Franco 1892 – 1975, dictator of Spain reviews troops Cueta during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Nationalist Army Tanks, in the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Photograph taken during the Spanish coup of July 1936. Dated 20th Century (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Members of General Franco’s nationalist troops searching a villager at Burgos during the Civil War. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Loyalist supporters of the Republican Government in Madrid. The city finally fell to Franco’s nationalist troops in 1939. | Location: Madrid, Spain. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Workmen in Madrid try to clear away some of the rubble created when buildings were destroyed in bombing raids by nationalist rebels. | Location: Madrid, Spain. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A 16 year old Loyalist soldier on the run during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A group of Republican soldiers talk to journalists during the Spanish Civil War, including the American novelist Ernest Hemingway (seen with his back to the camera), who served as a war correspondant. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Rescue workers search through the remains of a wrecked building on a Barcelona Street, looking for victims of a Civil War air raid which lasted for 41 hours. | Location: Barcelona, Spain. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A crowd of Spanish women and children refugees mad homeless by the civil war cross the border into France at Le Perthus. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Members of General Franco’s fascist troops searching a house at Burgos. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

General Solchager receives Franco’s nationalist troops at De Portus. | Location: De Portus. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Red Cross workers carry a victim of the Civil War fighting in Barcelona by stretcher to a waiting ambulance. | Location: Barcelona, Spain. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Anarchist militia from the National Confederation of Labour wave their flags and rifles for the camera in Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War. | Location: Barcelona, Spain. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A Spanish Republican tank arrives at Le Perthus as the nationalists force their retreat over the border into France. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Goverment snipers attacking a rebel nationalist outpost from 7,000 feet up in the Guadarrama Mountains during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A group of participants in the revolt in Asturias during the Spanish Civil War are marched along under the arrest of civil guards. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A group of soldiers who fought during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A Civil War refugee from Malaga sits despairingly amidst rubble with her child as she is forced to join others in making her way to Barcelona, Valence or Alicante. | Location: Malaga, Spain. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Spanish Republicans, fighting against General Franco’s fascist forces, line up in a trench, guns ready for an attack, during the Spanish Civil War. Spain, ca. 1936. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

People knock down a barricade and gun emplacement, as life returns to normal after the end of the Spanish Civil War. | Location: Madrid, Spain. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

A Nationalist soldier advances past a dead horse towards the Plaza De Toros. Spain, ca. 1936. (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Bundles of branches are used to conceal a car from aerial view, during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). (Photo by © -Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via )

Nationalist troops cross a badly damaged bridge during the Spanish Civil War 1936 (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Republican supporters prepare to defend positions in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War 1936. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Italian air force bombardment of Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War 1936. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Republican soldiers rest for food, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Young boys dressed as Falangist militia, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Militiamen of the Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya – Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia, An alliance of socialist parties in Catalonia during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Jose Durruti Dumange (1896-20 November 1936) Anarcho-syndicalist leading his column of Republican fighters to Aragon, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Double amputee war veteran, in a Spanish street during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Nationalist supporters gather in Barcelona’s Plaza de Cataluna, after the fall of the city in 1939, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Republican civilians collect donations during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Republican woman civilian stands guard with a rifle during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Spanish Civil War: Republicans forces battle street by street against nationalists near the Alcazar in Toledo 1936. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Spanish Civil War: civilians take shelter in a Metro station in Madrid 1938. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Spanish Civil War, 1938 bodies of several children killed during a nationalist air raid on Barcelona. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

A civilian is helped to safety at Teruel, during the Spanish Civil War. The combatants fought the battle between December 1937 and February 1938, during the worst Spanish winter in twenty years.[9] The battle was one of the bloodier actions of the war with the city changing hands several times, first falling to the Republicans and eventually being re-taken by the Nationalists. In the course of the fighting, Teruel was subjected to heavy artillery and aerial bombardment. The two sides suffered over 140,000 casualties between them in the two-month battle. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Republican militia on the move towards a battle front, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Las Milicias de la Cultura (Militia of Culture) was a body of teachers, created during the Spanish Civil War by the government of the Republic in order to provide basic education to the troops in combat. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Victims of street fighting in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Civilians lie dead after a nationalist air raid on Barcelona in 1938, during the Spanish Civil War. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Madrid after the bombings, Spanish Civil War, from L’Illustrazione Italiana, year LXIII, n 48, November 29, 1936.

A man hangs out in the rubble along the bombed streets of Madrid, Spain, maybe looking for victims or loot, from L’Illustrazione Italiana, year LXIII, n 51, December 20, 1936.

Francisco Franco nationalist forces at Fort de Bellegarde during the Catalonia Offensive, Spanish Civil war, from L’Illustrazione Italiana, Year LXVI, No 9, February 26, 1939.

Francoist assault infantry advancing on Madrid, Spain, Spanish Civil war, from L’Illustrazione Italiana, Year LXVI, No 16, April 16, 1939.

Spanish Civil War (1936-1939); Devastated streets of Guernica after the bombing; April 1937. (Photo by: Photo 12/ )

Casualty from street fighting arrives at a Barcelona hospital during the Spanish civil war 1938. (Photo by: Photo12/ )

Republican soldiers during the Spanish civil war, Barcelona 1937. (Photo by: Photo12/ )

Battle in the streets of Barcelona, 1936, Spain, Spanish Civil War, 20th century.

Squadron of Italian Fiat Cr 32 fighter planes flying in the Ebro region, Spain, Spanish Civil War, 20th century.

The Nazi propaganda picture shows the warship “Velasco” of Francos troops in the harbor of San Sebastian during the Spanish Civil War. The photo was taken in San Sebastián, Spain, March 1937. Photo: Berliner Verlag / Archive (Photo by Berliner Verlag/Archiv/picture alliance via )

Picture taken during the Spanish Civil War in the late 30s of Republicans fighting in a street of an unidentified village. Spain marked 70 years since the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, 18 July 2006 as opinion polls acknowledged divisions still run deep over the legacy of a conflict which left half a million dead. Traditionally, since General Francisco Franco’s Nationalist forces triumphed and disbanded the elected institutions of the Second Republic replacing them with a military dictatorship, Spaniards have marked the date in low-key fashion, maintaining a so-called “pact of silence.”
Photo prise durant la guerre civile espagnole dans la seconde moitié des années 30 de combattants républicains se battant dans les rues d’un village non identifié.
AFP PHOTO (Photo by – / AFP) (Photo credit should read -/AFP via )

Republican barricade during the Siege of the Alcazar was a highly symbolic Nationalist victory in Toledo in the opening stages of the Spanish Civil War. The Alcazar of Toledo was held by a variety of military forces in favour of the Nationalist uprising. Militias of the parties in the Popular Front began their siege on July 21, 1936. The siege ended on September 27 with the arrival of the Army of Africa under Francisco Franco. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/ )

Writer and journalist Ernest Hemingway (1899 – 1961, background, left) talks with Republican soldiers before they go into action on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December 1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ ).

The body of a Republican soldier killed on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December 1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ ).

Corpses of Republican soldiers killed on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December 1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ ).

Republican soldiers go into action on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December 1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ ).

The body of a Republican soldier killed on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December 1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ )

Corpses of Republican soldiers killed on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ ).

Armored vehicles of the Republican army on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ ).

Armored vehicles of the Republican army on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of Teruel on 21st December1937 near Teruel, Aragon, Spain. (Photo by Daily Express/ ).

Jeune milicienne pendant l’attaque d’un village par les républicains pendant la guerre d’Espagne, le 28 décembre 1936. (Photo by KEYSTONE-FRANCE/Gamma-Rapho via )

L’attaque d’un village par les miliciens républicains pendant la guerre d’Espagne, le 28 décembre 1936. (Photo by KEYSTONE-FRANCE/Gamma-Rapho via )

Camion transportant des soldats républicains pendant le siège de Madrid, lors de la guerre d’Espagne, en janvier 1937. (Photo by KEYSTONE-FRANCE/Gamma-Rapho via )

Evacuation d’un milicien républicain blessé pendant les combats du siège de Madrid, lors de la guerre d’Espagne, en janvier 1937. (Photo by KEYSTONE-FRANCE/Gamma-Rapho via )

Anciens combattants des Brigades Internationnales lors du rassemblement des sympathisants du Parti Communiste sur la place de la République pour la commémoration des émeutes du 6 février 1934, à Paris, le 6 février 1948, France. (Photo by Keystone-France/Gamma-Rapho via )

Spanish Civil War – Spain in 1936 – desperate woman during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Desperate mother with children in the Spanish Civil War in Madrid, Spain. (Photo by Erich Andres/United Images via )

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Publicado por en 27 noviembre, 2020 en Historia, Reseñas, Reverteando

 

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